The Middle East has witnessed decreasing stability and increasing armed conflict since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and by the middle of 2022, these concerning trajectories had shown no sign of abatement. However, various energy trade agreements that have emerged organically in the region during the last five years give cause for optimism: according to the classical liberal theory of international relations, economic integration has a positive effect on diplomatic relations. This paper examines a selection of recent intra-regional energy agreements and assesses their likelihood of improving international relations within the Middle East.
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